Which Human Rights Do We Have?

Here’s a summary list of internationally recognized human rights:

1. Civil Rights or Freedom Rights

  • Equality of rights without discrimination
  • Life
  • Security and integrity of the person
  • Protection against slavery, torture and cruel or inhuman punishment (humane treatment when detained)
  • Protection against arbitrary arrest or detention (arrest or detention only on the basis of a law and with prompt notice of the charges)
  • A public, fair and prompt trial before an independent, impartial and competent judge
  • Presumption of innocence until proven guilty
  • Means necessary for your defense
  • Protection against compulsory confession
  • The right not to testify against yourself
  • “Ne bis in idem”, no two convictions or punishments for the same offense
  • Case reviewed by a higher tribunal
  • Protection against “ex post facto” laws, laws established after the deed
  • “Nullum crimen sine lege”, there is no offense without a law
  • Recognition as a person before the law
  • Equality before the law and equal protection by the law
  • Judicial protection of rights and access to legal remedies for rights violations (the right to apply to a court which offers redress for violations)
  • Protection of privacy, family, home and correspondence
  • Freedom of movement and residence
  • Asylum from persecution
  • The right not to be deprived of your nationality, the right to change your nationality
  • Protection against arbitrary expulsion of nationals and aliens
  • Leave and return to your country
  • The right to marry and beget a family of your choice
  • Protection of the family
  • The right to own property
  • Freedom of thought and religion
  • Freedom of expression (seeking, receiving and imparting information regardless of borders)
  • The absence of attacks on your honor and reputation
  • Freedom of assembly and association (including the right to leave an association)

2. Political Rights or Democratic Rights

  • Political participation, directly and through freely chosen representatives
  • Equal access to public service, the right to be elected
  • The will of the people is the basis of the authority of government
  • Periodic and genuine elections
  • Universal and equal suffrage
  • Secret vote

3. Social, Economic and Cultural Rights

  • Social security
  • A certain standard of living
  • Work, of your own choice and under favorable conditions
  • Protection for the unemployed, the elderly, the disabled and sick persons
  • Fair wages and equal wages for equal work
  • Free trade unions (right to form and join)
  • Strike
  • Rest and leisure
  • Food, clothing and housing
  • Health care
  • Special protection for children and mothers
  • Education
  • Participation in the cultural life of the community
  • Self-determination
  • International solidarity

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