Health is a human rights issue in two respects. First, people have a right to health care and health insurance. Article 25 of the Universal Declaration states that
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is more specific. Article 7 guarantees the rights to safe and healthy working conditions. Article 10 deals with child labor:
The employment of children in work harmful to their morals or health or dangerous to life or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable by law.
Article 12 states:
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. 2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for: (a) The provision for the reduction of the stillbirth-rate and of infant mortality and for the healthy development of the child; (b) The improvement of all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene; (c) The prevention, treatment and control of epidemic, endemic, occupational and other diseases; (d) The creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.
The second way in which health is a human rights issue is the fact that good health is a precondition for the enjoyment of all human rights. In this way, bad health is similar to poverty. You have to be healthy and without pain in order to be able to use freedom rights and political rights. A sick, suffering or toiling person is thrown back upon himself and unable to relate to the outside world, just as a person who concentrates exclusively on his or her body for pleasurable reasons. Intense bodily sensations of any kind – positive and negative – shut us off from the world, because they make it impossible to perceive anything except our own body. In other words, they make the use of our classical rights impossible or undesirable.