Racism expresses itself in different ways, one of which is discrimination in employment:
In 2004, Jean-François Amadieu, a sociologist at the Sorbonne, sent out 500 CVs replying to ads for sales jobs in the Paris region. The CVs were identical except in one regard: some applicants had north African names, and others traditional French ones. The white male French names received five times as many job offers as the north African ones. When Amadieu repeated the exercise in 2006, the ratio was 20:1. (source)
Such examples of racism in employment policy have an impact on unemployment rates across races. Those are very unequal for different races.
And then the numbers exclude those who are in prison. Given that there are 5 times as many blacks behind bars as whites in the U.S., including them in unemployment statistics would make the gap even wider. (And why shouldn’t we include them? They obviously don’t earn a living and can’t provide for their families).
Of course, this difference between the unemployment rates for blacks and whites isn’t entirely caused by direct discrimination in employment decisions. Other elements play a part:
- Jobs are often concentrated in white suburbs, difficult to reach for blacks who do not own a car.
- Blacks often can’t rely on networks of family businesses as much as whites or Latinos.
- Blacks “have been relegated to precarious, low-wage work … at disproportionate rates” (source), making them more vulnerable to recessions, outsourcing and competition from immigrants.
- Indirect discrimination: if blacks receive substandard education, are less healthy and more poor, then this will affect their employment prospects.