The Ethics of Human Rights (36): A Human Right to Existence?

Can people have a right to exist? If there is such a right then it has to be distinguished from the right to life. In fact, what I’m talking about here is a right to be conceived and/or born, not a right to continue your life after you’re born.

The supposed right to exist is sometimes used to invalidate abortion, and indeed we should distinguish between two possible meanings of the right to exist: the right to exist of a fetus and the right to exist of a merely potential or possible human being (e.g. a human being as the potential child of parents considering conception). I personally would argue that neither a fetus nor a potential human being have a right to exist.

  1. A fetus doesn’t have a right to exist in the sense in which we understand that right here, not because we are allowed to “terminate” it at will, but because it is already an existing human being (life for me starts at conception, which doesn’t mean that I rule out abortion completely). However, other people who are more willing to tolerate abortion often equate a fetus with a mere potential human being and for them the distinction I make here may seem to be irrelevant.
  2. Potential human beings, as I understand them (see above), don’t have a right to exist either, in my opinion. If you want to argue the opposite, you would have to claim that all or most possible human beings (given some exceptions) should be born, and that’s physically and biologically impossible. All combinations of sperm and egg should then exist, but once a sperm fertilizes an egg it can’t fertilize another egg. Protecting the right to exist would also mean outlawing spontaneous abortions and male masturbation*, and that’s wildly counterintuitive. It would also mean a correlative obligation to procreate, which is also counterintuitive.
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3 thoughts on “The Ethics of Human Rights (36): A Human Right to Existence?

  1. Hahahaha!
    I have been working for the Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines for over 2 years and, indeed, it’s my first time to hear of the masturbation-HR link.
    Thanks for the aha moment.
    =D

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