Xenophobia, the contempt or fear of strangers or foreign people, often people of a different race or ethnic group, is not considered to be a disease like other “phobias”. It is part of a political struggle against adversaries, much like racism is. (Whereas racism is certainly xenophobic, xenophobia doesn’t have to be racist; it can be directed against groups which are not racially different from the xenophobes).
Xenophobia often takes places within a society rather than between societies. A group present within a society is not considered a legitimate part of that society and has to be expelled or assimilated in order not to corrupt or damage the interests of the rest of society. Hence the link to ethnic cleansing or genocide.
Causes of xenophobia include:
- Ethnically-based nationalism (e.g. xenophobia in the Balkan countries)
- Migration, although xenophobia may be directed against a group which has been present for centuries, or against very small numbers of immigrants or foreigners (e.g. Japan in the 19th century)
- Perceived threats to culture or national identity
- Religious doctrine (e.g. the attitude of some Muslims towards unbelievers)
- Perceptions of neocolonialism (e.g. present-day Zimbabwe)
- Political imbalances (e.g. one group holding a disproportionate share of political power, e.g. anti-Tutsi xenophobia in Rwanda before and during the genocide)
- Terrorism (e.g. anti-Muslim xenophobia following 9-11)
- Competition for scarce resources
- A mix of the above.